Denis Gril, Miracles, , Brill, 2007
sources are not contemporaneous with the events they purport to relate and sometimes were written many centuries later

"Muhmmad," Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim world•.

أُرَتِبُ الْأُنْشُودة حَسَب التَّسَلسل
5, "One major challenge to examining initial contacts between Byzantium and the early Muslim umma arises from the controversy surrounding the traditional Islamic account
كورونا يغيب أشهر طبيب في تعز يحبه الجميع والحزن يعم المنطقة ( الإسم والصورة )
Peter Teed 1992 , p
597, which notes that many of the details surrounding Muhammad's life as given in the biographies, are "problematic in certain respects, the most important of which is that they represent a tradition of living narrative that is likely to have developed orally for a considerable period before it was given even a relatively fixed written form El-Cheikh, Nadia Maria Byzantium Viewed by the Arabs 2004, Harvard University Press p
See, for example, Bowersock, Glen Warren, Peter Robert Lamont Brown and Oleg Grabar Late Antiquity: A Guide to the Postclassical World 1999, Harvard University Press p Hitti, History of the Arabs, 10th edition 1970 , p

Seeing Islam as others saw it: a survey and evaluation of Christian, Jewish, Robert G.

كورونا يغيب أشهر طبيب في تعز يحبه الجميع والحزن يعم المنطقة ( الإسم والصورة )
أحمد مكى.. نجم يُحبه الجميع
مذكرة لغتي ثاني ابتدائي ف2 1442 أ. مهرة العبادي
however, there is no relevant archaeological, epigraphic, or numismatic evidence dating from the time of Muhammad, nor are there any references to him in non-Muslim sources dating from the period before 632