597, which notes that many of the details surrounding Muhammad's life as given in the biographies, are "problematic in certain respects, the most important of which is that they represent a tradition of living narrative that is likely to have developed orally for a considerable period before it was given even a relatively fixed written form
Moreover, many of them provide evidence of embellishment and invention that were introduced to serve the purposes of political or religious apologetic The Bustan al-Ukul, by Nathanael ibn al-Fayyumi, edited and translated by David Levine, Columbia University Oriental Studies Vol


معلومات عن الرسول عليه الصلاة والسلام
معلومات عن الرسول عليه الصلاة والسلام
Peter Teed 1992 , p
See, for example, Bowersock, Glen Warren, Peter Robert Lamont Brown and Oleg Grabar Late Antiquity: A Guide to the Postclassical World 1999, Harvard University Press p
sources are not contemporaneous with the events they purport to relate and sometimes were written many centuries later
Seeing Islam as others saw it: a survey and evaluation of Christian, Jewish, Robert G These sources contain internal complexities, anachronisms, discrepancies, and contradictions

Ideally, one would like to be able to check such accounts against contemporary evidence.

وفاة النبي عليه الصلاة والسلام
أدعية الرسول عليه الصلاة والسلام
"Muhmmad," Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim world• 137 Netanel's work was virtually unknown beyond his native Yemen until modern times, so had little influence on later Jewish thought• Lapidus 2002 , pp 0
قصة إسماعيل عليه الصلاة والسلام
El-Cheikh, Nadia Maria Byzantium Viewed by the Arabs 2004, Harvard University Press p