El-Cheikh, Nadia Maria Byzantium Viewed by the Arabs 2004, Harvard University Press p
Hitti, History of the Arabs, 10th edition 1970 , p 5, "One major challenge to examining initial contacts between Byzantium and the early Muslim umma arises from the controversy surrounding the traditional Islamic account

Denis Gril, Miracles, , Brill, 2007.

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Seeing Islam as others saw it: a survey and evaluation of Christian, Jewish, Robert G
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The Bustan al-Ukul, by Nathanael ibn al-Fayyumi, edited and translated by David Levine, Columbia University Oriental Studies Vol
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however, there is no relevant archaeological, epigraphic, or numismatic evidence dating from the time of Muhammad, nor are there any references to him in non-Muslim sources dating from the period before 632
"Muhmmad," Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim world• Kafih Jerusalem, 1984 , ch
137 Netanel's work was virtually unknown beyond his native Yemen until modern times, so had little influence on later Jewish thought• sources are not contemporaneous with the events they purport to relate and sometimes were written many centuries later Ideally, one would like to be able to check such accounts against contemporary evidence


مسلسل العروس الجديدة قصة عشق
Peter Teed 1992 , p
وصف النبي محمد
These sources contain internal complexities, anachronisms, discrepancies, and contradictions
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