Moreover, many of them provide evidence of embellishment and invention that were introduced to serve the purposes of political or religious apologetic
El-Cheikh, Nadia Maria Byzantium Viewed by the Arabs 2004, Harvard University Press p

"Muhmmad," Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim world• however, there is no relevant archaeological, epigraphic, or numismatic evidence dating from the time of Muhammad, nor are there any references to him in non-Muslim sources dating from the period before 632.

أقوال العلماء في وقت ولادة النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم ووفاته وذِكر الراجح منها
5, "One major challenge to examining initial contacts between Byzantium and the early Muslim umma arises from the controversy surrounding the traditional Islamic account
الاختلاف في تاريخ المولد
تاريخ ميلاد الرسول محمد بالميلادي والهجري
These sources contain internal complexities, anachronisms, discrepancies, and contradictions
Denis Gril, Miracles, , Brill, 2007
Ideally, one would like to be able to check such accounts against contemporary evidence Seeing Islam as others saw it: a survey and evaluation of Christian, Jewish, Robert G

sources are not contemporaneous with the events they purport to relate and sometimes were written many centuries later.

أين ومتى ولد الرسول صلى الله عليه وسلم
أقوال العلماء في وقت ولادة النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم ووفاته وذِكر الراجح منها
597, which notes that many of the details surrounding Muhammad's life as given in the biographies, are "problematic in certain respects, the most important of which is that they represent a tradition of living narrative that is likely to have developed orally for a considerable period before it was given even a relatively fixed written form
تاريخ عيد المولد النبوي لسنة 2021 1442
The Bustan al-Ukul, by Nathanael ibn al-Fayyumi, edited and translated by David Levine, Columbia University Oriental Studies Vol