Peter Teed 1992 , p

597, which notes that many of the details surrounding Muhammad's life as given in the biographies, are "problematic in certain respects, the most important of which is that they represent a tradition of living narrative that is likely to have developed orally for a considerable period before it was given even a relatively fixed written form.

مهران مدیری
The Bustan al-Ukul, by Nathanael ibn al-Fayyumi, edited and translated by David Levine, Columbia University Oriental Studies Vol
مهران مدیری
محمد
El-Cheikh, Nadia Maria Byzantium Viewed by the Arabs 2004, Harvard University Press p 5, "One major challenge to examining initial contacts between Byzantium and the early Muslim umma arises from the controversy surrounding the traditional Islamic account

Moreover, many of them provide evidence of embellishment and invention that were introduced to serve the purposes of political or religious apologetic.

2
مهران مدیری: جزءبه‌جزء «دورهمی» جدید کپی است
sources are not contemporaneous with the events they purport to relate and sometimes were written many centuries later
مهران مدیری: جزءبه‌جزء «دورهمی» جدید کپی است
Kafih Jerusalem, 1984 , ch
مهران مدیری
"Muhmmad," Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim world• Hitti, History of the Arabs, 10th edition 1970 , p